The Jockey Club Considers Rule Regarding Breeding Stallions

The Jockey Club board of stewards, concerned with the narrowing of the diversity of the Thoroughbred gene pool, today announced its consideration of a rule to limit the annual breeding of individual stallions starting with the 2021 breeding season.

The Jockey Club, established in 1894, is the keeper of the American Stud Book and maintains the Principal Rules and Requirements of the American Studbook in order to ensure the welfare of the Thoroughbred breed.

As has been widely reported, the size of the North American foal crop has diminished significantly, from 37,499 in 2007 to the 20,500 estimated for 2020.

In 2007, 37 stallions reported in excess of 140 mares bred each from a total of 3,865 stallions. By 2010, that number had declined to 24. Since then, the number has nearly doubled to 43 stallions reporting 140 or more mares bred from a population of stallions that now stands at less than one-half that of 2007.

On the mare side, in 2007, 5,894 mares (9.5% of the total) were bred by stallions that covered more than 140 mares. By 2019, 7,415 mares (27% of the total) were covered by stallions with books of more than 140, a threefold increase.

The combination of these changes has resulted in a substantial increase in the percentage of foals produced by a discreet segment of stallions — signaling a worrisome concentration of the gene pool.

The board of stewards of The Jockey Club is considering a cap of 140 mares bred per individual stallion per calendar year in North America, phased-in, as follows:

  • Stallions entering stud service for the first time in 2020 would be exempt from the 140 limit through the 2023 season
  • Stallions that entered stud service in 2019 would be exempt through the 2022 season
  • Stallions that entered stud service in 2018 would be exempt through the 2021 season
  • Stallions that entered service in 2017 or prior would be subject to the 140 cap as of January 1, 2021

The stewards will continue to study the decreasing diversity of the Thoroughbred gene pool and its cause and potential effects over the course of time. As more data and analyses become available, the stewards may revise The Jockey Club’s approach to protecting the breed’s health and welfare.

The Jockey Club solicits and welcomes comments on the proposed rule from breeders, owners, and others with interests in the Thoroughbred breed and the industry. Contact The Jockey Club at jockeyclub.com.

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Pregnancy Problems: How to Increase Your Chances of Delivering a Healthy Foal

By Jen Roytz

What could be that difficult about breeding? You select a stallion that suits the mare and your goals, breed your mare, then keep her fed and watered for 11 months until you’re rewarded with a healthy foal.

If only it were that simple.

There are many reasons a mare can prove difficult to get into foal, or to stay in foal. It could be as simple function of age. It could be results from a complicated delivery. Or, it could be a multitude of other reasons.

Regardless, now is the time breeders should be paying special attention to preparing their breeding stock for the upcoming season, and for those with known issues there are added safeguards and steps breeders can take she gave themselves and their horses the best chance at a successful pregnancy.

Issues that Can Impact Conception

There are many reasons a horse may have issues getting impregnated, the most basic of which are her age, not breeding her at the appropriate time during her cycle, or poor reproductive health of the mare or stallion.

A typical mare’s ovum, or egg, begins to lose viability within just five to six hours post-ovulation, and typically loses all viability within 24 hours. While a stallion’s semen typically remains viable for 48 hours, a reduced number and quality of a stallion’s semen can limit its viability to just a few hours. Age can negatively impact these timeframes for both sexes.

The mare’s body condition can also play into her chances of becoming pregnant. Most veterinarians recommend mares to rank around a 5 or a 6 on the Henneke Body Condition Score (BCS). When a mare’s weight and overall health decline, so too does their reproductive efficiency.

Outside of age and general health-related issues, endometritis is the most common reason for infertility in mares. This condition, which is an infection or inflammation of the lining of the uterus caused by foreign contaminants such as bacteria or spermatozoa, can either be acute as a result of breeding (both artificial and natural), reproductive examination or as a result of poor conformation.

“There are simple, but important steps one can take to improve the chances of conception, including a physical examination of both the mare and the stallion, a careful and thorough reproductive exam of the mare prior to the breeding season and during the estrous cycle during which breeding is to occur and to optimize the overall health of the horse,” said Kristina Lu, VMD, an equine reproductive specialist with Hagyard Equine Medical Institute.

Early vs. Late Term Pregnancy Loss

Just as there are a number of reasons a mare can be difficult to impregnate, the same can hold true for keeping her in foal. Most pregnancy losses occur in the initial weeks and months of pregnancy.

Again, age can play a role. As mares age, they may experience uterine fibrosis, which can lead to a placenta that is less-efficient in getting nutrition to the growing fetus.

Other causes for early-term pregnancy loss can be unavoidable complications, such as genetic defects or embryonic abnormalities. They can also be due to uterine infections that may have been low-grade and undetectable at the time of breeding/conception but proliferate in the subsequent weeks and months.

Late-term losses can have their own set of culprits.

“Placentitis, umbilical cord torsion, systemic illness can all cause late, and in some cases mid-term abortion in mares,” said Lu. “Diseases such as leptospirosis, equine herpesvirus 1 or 4 and equine viral arteritis are threats to a healthy gestation as well, some of which can spread quickly through a herd and may not generate obvious clinical signs other than abortion.”

Then there are also those mares that have little trouble carrying a foal to term, only to be prone to dystocias (difficulty giving birth), which can be caused by congenital abnormalities, such as contracted limbs that prevent the foal from properly fitting through the birth canal. This, in turn, can lead to oxygen deprivation in foals.

Safeguards to Protect Both Mare and Foal

While some complications are simply unavoidable, there are safeguards and protocols that can be implemented to support the gestation and delivery of a healthy foal.

“Some simple things horsemen and women can do to protect their mares and future foals are to maintain good general health of a mare, conduct thorough reproductive examinations, monitor the mare’s reproductive tract before and after breeding, ensure regular core vaccinations, consider screening for placentitis if the mare has a previous history and consider vaccinating for herpes or leptospirosis if appropriate,” said Lu. “Breeding as close to ovulation as possible can also be of benefit. On the other hand, repeated breeding during an estrous cycle (average 21 days) may increase opportunity for endometritis in some mares.”

Above all else, staying in regular communication with your veterinarian is one of the best forms of protection one can afford their mares.

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The Jockey Club Releases 2018 Report of Mares Bred Statistics

The Jockey Club today released Report of Mares Bred (RMB) statistics for the 2018 breeding season. Based on RMBs received through October 16, 2018, The Jockey Club reports that 1,214 stallions covered 30,274 mares in North America during 2018.

The Jockey Club estimates an additional 3,000 to 4,000 mares will be reported as bred during the 2018 breeding season.

The number of stallions declined 9.5% from the 1,342 reported at this time in 2017, and the number of mares bred decreased 5.0% from the 31,863 reported last year. The number of stallions covering 125 or more mares increased from 60 in 2017 to 62 in 2018.

Further book size analysis shows a 3.0% increase in the number of mares bred to stallions with a book size of 125 or more in 2018 when compared to 2017 as reported at this time last year; a 1.4% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 100 and 124; a 7.0% increase in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 75 and 99; a 6.7% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 50 and 74; a 9.6% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 25 and 49; and a 16.7% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size fewer than 25.

The percentage of broodmares covered by large book size (125 or more) stallions increased from 29.4% in 2017 to 31.9% in 2018. From 2015-2017, this percentage had remained constant at approximately 29%, up from 20.5% in 2014.

The proportion of stallions with book sizes of 125 or more mares grew from 3.1% in 2014 to 4.5% from 2015-2017. In 2018, this proportion increased to 5.1%.

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
% stallions with book size >125 3.1% 4.5% 4.5% 4.5% 5.1%
% mares covered by stallions with book size >125 20.5% 29.1% 28.7% 29.4% 31.9%

Note: Statistics summarized as of October 16 of the breeding seasons indicated in the columns above; as reports of mares bred continue to be received, final statistics are subject to change.

RMB statistics for all reported stallions in 2018 are available through the Fact Book section of The Jockey Club’s website at jockeyclub.com.

The stallion Into Mischief led all stallions with 245 mares bred in 2018. Rounding out the top five by number of RMBs were Cupid, 223; Klimt, 222; Practical Joke, 220; and, Violence, 214.

Kentucky traditionally leads North America in Thoroughbred breeding activity. During 2018, Kentucky’s 228 reported stallions covered 17,322 mares, or 57.2% of all of the mares reported bred in North America. The number of mares bred to Kentucky stallions increased 0.3% percent compared with the 17,275 reported at this time last year.

Of the top 10 states and provinces by number of mares reported bred in 2018, Kentucky, California, Maryland, and Pennsylvania stallions covered more mares in 2018 than in 2017, as reported at this time last year. The following table shows the top 10 states and provinces ranked by number of mares reported bred in 2018:

State/Province 2017 Stallions 2018 Stallions Pct. Change 2017 Mares Bred 2018 Mares Bred Pct. Change
Kentucky 229 228 -0.4% 17,275 17,322 0.3%
California 137 137 0.0% 2,356 2,482 5.3%
Florida 92 78 -15.2% 2,073 1,917 -7.5%
Louisiana 93 80 -14.0% 1,235 1,125 -8.9%
New York 58 48 -17.2% 1,326 1,115 -15.9%
Maryland 30 30 0.0% 768 867 12.9%
Ontario 38 37 -2.6% 810 620 -23.5%
Pennsylvania 36 32 -11.1% 563 610 8.3%
Indiana 59 57 -3.4% 554 506 -8.7%
Oklahoma 54 43 -20.4% 537 470 -12.5%

Note: Each incident in which a mare was bred to more than one stallion and appeared on multiple RMBs is counted separately. As such, mares bred totals listed in the table above may differ slightly from counts of distinct mares bred.

In addition, Report of Mares Bred information on stallions that bred mares in North America is available through report 36P or a subscription service at equineline.com/ReportOfMaresBred.

The Jockey Club, founded in 1894 and dedicated to the improvement of Thoroughbred breeding and racing, is the breed registry for North American Thoroughbreds. In fulfillment of its mission, The Jockey Club, directly or through subsidiaries, provides support and leadership on a wide range of important industry initiatives, and it serves the information and technology needs of owners, breeders, media, fans and farms. It is the sole funding source for America’s Best Racing, the broad-based fan development initiative for Thoroughbred racing. You can follow America’s Best Racing at americasbestracing.net. Additional information is available at jockeyclub.com.

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Bloodlines: Changing Times For Infertility Insurance On Regional Sires

by | 07.03.2018 | 8:57am

Stallion farms based outside of Kentucky will no longer easily be able to purchase first-year infertility insurance on stallion prospects that are “lesser-priced horses,” according to well-placed sources with connections to the insurance agencies and stallion operations.

Although not something that’s obvious to the general public, insurance against infertility is one of the nearly invisible layers of business that allows the great bloodstock machine to work smoothly year after year by protecting the investment and confidence of stallion operations and their syndicate members.

First-year infertility insurance is a policy written to protect a farm or buyer “in case you’ve syndicated a horse for major money that somehow has a congenital problem,” said Lynn Jones of Equus / Standarbred Station insurance. “These policies are written so that if a stallion isn’t able to get 60 percent of his mares in foal, then the farm or syndicate isn’t left holding the bag.”

Instead, by going through an insurance agent and underwriter, stallion buyers spread the risk of loss from that inevitability: the subfertile or infertile stallion. To arrange for a policy, Jones said, “You want a qualified vet to do the initial examination. They will measure the testicles, run a blood test, and the result is a huge protection device. But you can’t collect him or have a semen evaluation. Everyone goes in blindfolded, so to speak. It’s so commonplace that it’s now a built-in cost of the acquisition.”

The principal underwriters of insurance policies for horses, whether for accidental death (AD&D) or first-year infertility, are Lloyd’s of London, Great American, and NAS Swiss Re. These are giant international risk underwriters that back the insurance policies that local and national agents sell to farms or individuals.

One agent in Central Kentucky who preferred not to be named said that “Horse insurance, as a percentage of their equity underwriting, doesn’t amount to a rounding error to these major underwriters. But they perceive an elevated risk in regional markets relative to Kentucky and are being more selective.”

None of the selectivity applies to stallion operations in Kentucky because “we can be a little bit spoiled by the horse market and general environment here in the Bluegrass,” one agent said. “This is the epicenter of the stallion market. In regional markets, you can find variation in horsemanship – both in stallion and mare management, as well as in the availability of world-class veterinary facilities and specialists.”

As a result of this change of availability for first-year stallion fertility insurance, some regional breeders will have to make hard decisions about adding stallions to their rosters.

One regional breeder already has collided with this unexpected situation. He said, “Late last year, I bought a stallion prospect off the racetrack, called my Kentucky agent to get a quote for infertility insurance, and was told – eventually – that they had found an underwriter to cover it, but the rate was more than double what I would have paid the previous year.”

A well-known Kentucky agent said “it is likely to be more difficult for farms to insure stallions in the regional programs, but we can still get deals done. They might be more expensive, however, but if underwriters get a run of several years that do not generate claims, then they might change their views.”

One option for farms is to self insure, which essentially means to play the odds that your horse will have normal fertility. And Mark Toothaker of Spendthrift Farm in Kentucky said, “Spendthrift doesn’t insure any of its stallions against fertility loss. We don’t have a single horse on the farm insured. So far, we haven’t had a loss.”

And, despite the reluctance among some underwriters, there will be other underwriters available to service those who want to insure for first-year infertility, according to Jones.

He said, “We’ve been doing this since 1980, and, no matter the individual situation, there are underwriters you’ve been working with will take the time to write a policy for that animal.”

The policy just may cost something more.

This is one more dampening effect on the overall stallion market, which is none too robust outside the Bluegrass. Now, it has one more inefficiency to deal with.

Frank Mitchell is author of Racehorse Breeding Theories, as well as the book Great Breeders and Their Methods: The Hancocks. In addition to writing the column “Sires and Dams” in Daily Racing Form for nearly 15 years, he has contributed articles to Thoroughbred Daily News, Thoroughbred Times, Thoroughbred Record, International Thoroughbred, and other major publications. In addition, Frank is chief of biomechanics for DataTrack International and is a hands-on caretaker of his own broodmares and foals in Central Kentucky. Check out Frank’s lively Bloodstock in the Bluegrass blog.

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The Jockey Club Releases 2017 Report of Mares Bred Statistics

The Jockey Club has released Report of Mares Bred (RMB) statistics for the 2017 breeding season. Based on RMBs received through October 17, 2017, The Jockey Club reports that 1,342 stallions covered 31,863 mares in North America during 2017.

Based upon historical reporting trends, The Jockey Club estimates an additional 2,000 to 3,000 mares will be reported as bred during the 2017 breeding season.

The number of stallions declined 5.7% from the 1,423 reported at this time in 2016, and the number of mares bred decreased 5.6% from the 33,746 reported last year. The number of stallions covering 125 or more mares decreased from 64 in 2016 to 60 in 2017.

Further book size analysis shows a 3.3% decrease in the number of mares bred to stallions with a book size of 125 or more in 2017 when compared to 2016 as reported at this time last year; a 13.0% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 100 and 124; a 27.4% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 75 and 99; a 11.5% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 50 and 74; a 14.9% increase in mares bred to stallions with a book size between 25 and 49; and a 4.7% decrease in mares bred to stallions with a book size fewer than 25.

When comparing statistics based on reports received through the same day (October 17) from previous breeding seasons, the percentage of broodmares covered by large book size (125 or more) stallions increased from 19.3% in 2013 to approximately 29% in 2015 where it has remained over the past three seasons.

The proportion of stallions with book sizes of 125 or more mares grew from 2.6% in 2013 to 4.5% in 2015. It has remained constant at that rate over the past three breeding seasons.

 

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

% stallions with book size >125

2.6%

3.1%

4.5%

4.5%

4.5%

% mares covered by stallions with book size >125

19.3%

20.5%

29.1%

28.7%

29.4%

Note: Statistics summarized as of October 17 of the breeding seasons indicated in the columns above; as reports of mares bred continue to be received, final statistics are subject to change.

RMB statistics for all reported stallions in 2017 are available through the Fact Book section of The Jockey Club’s website at jockeyclub.com.

The stallion Into Mischief led all stallions with 235 mares bred in 2017. Rounding out the top five by number of RMBs were Dialed In, 231; American Pharoah, 214; Uncle Mo, 204; and, Bodemeister, 192.

Kentucky traditionally leads North America in Thoroughbred breeding activity. During 2017, Kentucky’s 229 reported stallions covered 17,275 mares, or 54.2% of all of the mares reported bred in North America. The number of mares bred to Kentucky stallions decreased 2.7% percent compared with the 17,750 reported at this time last year.

Of the top 10 states and provinces by number of mares reported bred in 2017, Ontario, Pennsylvania and Indiana stallions covered more mares in 2017 than in 2016, as reported at this time last year. The following table shows the top 10 states and provinces ranked by number of mares reported bred in 2017:

State/Province

2016 Stallions

2017 Stallions

Pct. Change

2016 Mares Bred

2017 Mares Bred

Pct. Change

Kentucky

227

229

.88%

17,750

17,275

-2.68%

California

156

137

-12.18%

2,543

2,356

-7.35%

Florida

107

92

-14.02%

2,757

2,073

-24.81%

New York

55

58

5.45%

1,510

1,326

-12.19%

Louisiana

102

93

-8.82%

1,332

1,235

-7.28%

Ontario

38

38

0.00%

761

810

6.44%

Maryland

32

30

-6.25%

913

768

-15.88%

New Mexico

72

58

-19.44%

692

605

-12.57%

Pennsylvania

41

36

-12.20%

489

563

15.13%

Indiana

48

59

22.92%

386

554

43.52%

Note: Each incident in which a mare was bred to more than one stallion and appeared on multiple RMBs is counted separately. As such, mares bred totals listed in the table above may differ slightly from counts of distinct mares bred.

In addition, Report of Mares Bred information on stallions that bred mares in North America is available through report 36P or a subscription service at equineline.com/ReportOfMaresBred.

The Jockey Club, founded in 1894 and dedicated to the improvement of Thoroughbred breeding and racing, is the breed registry for North American Thoroughbreds. In fulfillment of its mission, The Jockey Club, directly or through subsidiaries, provides support and leadership on a wide range of important industry initiatives, and it serves the information and technology needs of owners, breeders, media, fans and farms. It is the sole funding source for America’s Best Racing, the broad-based fan development initiative for Thoroughbred racing. You can follow America’s Best Racing at americasbestracing.net. Additional information is available at jockeyclub.com.

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The Jockey Club 2017 Fact Book Available on Website

The Jockey Club announced on Tuesday, March 7,  that the 2017 edition of the Fact Book is available in the Resources section of its website at jockeyclub.com.

The online Fact Book is a statistical and informational guide to Thoroughbred breeding, racing and auction sales in North America. It also features a directory of state, national and international organizations.

Three pages in this year’s racing section have been updated to include Puerto Rico: Racing Statistics by Foaling Area, Size of Field and Starts per Horse, and 2-Year-Old Racing.

Links to the Breeding Statistics report that is released by The Jockey Club each September and the Report of Mares Bred information that is published by The Jockey Club each October can be found in the Breeding section of the Fact Book.

The 2017 editions of State Fact Books, which feature detailed breeding, racing and auction sales information specific to numerous states, Canadian provinces, and Puerto Rico, are also available on The Jockey Club website. The State Fact Books are updated monthly.

The Jockey Club, founded in 1894 and dedicated to the improvement of Thoroughbred breeding and racing, is the breed registry for North American Thoroughbreds. In fulfillment of its mission, The Jockey Club, directly or through subsidiaries, provides support and leadership on a wide range of important industry initiatives, and it serves the information and technology needs of owners, breeders, media, fans and farms. It is the sole funding source for America’s Best Racing, the broad-based fan development initiative for Thoroughbred racing. You can follow America’s Best Racing at americasbestracing.net. Additional information is available at jockeyclub.com.

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Louisiana Stallion Clever Cry Deceased

clever-cry
Donna Brown photo.

Louisiana stallion Clever Cry passed away at Brown’s Thoroughbred Farm, Wednesday, March 1 after struggling recently with health issues. A 2006 son of Street Cry out of the stakes winning Clever Trick mare Cherlindrea, Clever Cry has four crops of racing age. From only fourteen starters to date, Clever Cry is the sire of 9 winners including stakes winner Artist Cry.

Danny and Donna Brown owned Clever Cry and stood him at their farm in Bush, Louisiana. Donna said of the stallion, “Anybody that bred to him [Clever Cry] would say he was the kindest stud you have ever met in your life. He was a kind, kind, kind stallion.”

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February is for Foal Sharing

February is for Foal Sharing
Photo: Anne M. Eberhardt

If you’re a breeder on a budget, a foal-share deal can lower both your front-end costs and your risk compared to the standard “live foal” contract. Front-end costs are lower because you pay nothing until the sale (typically at auction) of the foal produced from the arrangement. Downside risk and upside return are moderated, because the payment for stallion services is proportional (typically at 50%) to the sale price.

February is often a good time to approach stallion managers with foal-share propositions. The breeding season is gearing up, and if a stallion’s book is not full, his stallion manager is looking for ways to attract more mares. Foal-share deals are a time-honored approach to generating incremental revenues.

Finding foal-share seasons involves the same screening procedures that you go through when looking for live-foal or no-guarantee deals, but one part of the search process is turned on its head. Normally breeders are looking for “bargain” stallions that are underpriced relative to their prospects, but your chances of finding a foal share deal increase with the degree to which a stallion is overpriced. Managers of overpriced stallions are more likely to be amenable to foal-share deals to increase a stallion’s book, because they haven’t been able to sell sufficient seasons at the advertised price.

Identifying “overpriced” stallions is part art and part science. Though in today’s highly competitive market for mares, “deals” of all kinds are more plentiful than they were prior to the great recession. Stallions that are less likely to be candidates for foal-share deals include top-class, first-year stallions and stallions high on the leading sire lists. In contrast, third- and fourth-year stallions and stallions that are having atypically quiet years are prime candidates for foal shares.

Though third- and fourth-year stallions are especially risky propositions, the right choice can pay for mistakes. Breeders who signed on for fourth-year Storm Cat, Unbridled, Tapit  , or Super Saver   deals can attest to that. Finance professionals who look for “turnaround” candidates will appreciate quiet stallions. Moreover, a quiet stallion that has produced top-class runners is less likely to suffer from technological obsolescence than a corporation.

Most farms have a standard foal-share deal with respect to shared expenses, often splitting sale expenses and registrations. The most frequent 50-50 split means that foal-share breeders need to breed to a better stallion than what they would breed to if paying the stud fee. If you have an outstanding mare, you might expect that you can negotiate a better split, and occasionally you can, but more likely you will need to shop for a stallion that justifies giving up half the sales proceeds.

There are a variety of ways to start the screening process for foal-share prospects. For proven stallions, I work down from the top of my stallion list (see RLLosey.com), arrayed by adjusted percentage of graded stakes winners, looking for likeable stallions that I consider overpriced. The most recent Jockey Club breeding statistics are also helpful. If a quality stallion bred less than 100 mares, his handlers may be looking for help.

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Charismatic Dies

Charismatic | Shigeki Yusa

 

Charismatic (Summer Squall–Bali Babe, by Drone), winner of the 1999 GI Kentucky Derby and GI Preakness S., died Sunday at Old Friends Thoroughbred retirement facility in Georgetown, Kentucky. The cause of death is not known. The 21-year-old stallion had been repatriated to the U.S. after standing much of his stud career at JBBA Shizunai Stallion Station in Japan. He arrived at Old Friends in early December.

“Right now, everyone is pretty much inconsolable,” said Old Friends president Michael Blowen. “Last night, at 6:30, he was fine. He was a really tough horse and he deserved a much longer retirement. But none of us, unfortunately, has a magic wand. Everyone at Old Friends takes solace from the few great months that this great champion gave us.”

Bred by Parrish Hill Farm and W. S. Farish, Charismatic was campaigned by Bob and Beverly Lewis and trained by D. Wayne Lukas. He graduated from the claiming ranks to capture the Derby as a 31-1 outsider and added the Preakness two weeks later. Favored to complete the Triple Crown sweep, the handsome chestnut suffered career-ending injuries just before the wire in the GI Belmont S. In an enduring image, jockey Chris Antley quickly dismounted and held Charismatic’s injured left front leg off the ground, preventing further damage and likely saving the colt’s life.

Charismatic was named champion 3-year-old and Horse of the Year in 1999. On the board in 11 of 17 starts, he won five times and earned $2,038,064.

Charismatic began his stud career at Lane’s End in 2000 and stood there for three seasons before relocating to Japan in 2002. He is the sire of 2005 GII Pennsylvania Derby winner Sun King and multiple graded stakes winner Gouldings Green, as well as Japanese group winner Wonder Acute (Jpn).

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