Horse Health: Alert – Baby on the way!

By Jen Roytz

As we embark on a new year full of hope and promise, ’tis the season for early mornings, sleepless nights and seemingly endless anticipation for those in the breeding industry. Those tasked with helping the next generation of equine athletes enter this world go to great lengths to be on-hand when each foal is born and do everything they can to ensure a successful delivery, or to call a veterinarian if any problems arise.

The foaling process is broken down into three stages. Stage 1 being early signs of labor; stage 2 is when the water breaks and the actual delivery of the foal; and stage 3 is the expulsion of the placenta.

Once a mare progresses to stage 2, it is imperative the foal be delivered within 30 minutes or less to avoid hypoxia (oxygen deprivation), which can lead to brain damage or death of the foal. While regularly checking mares throughout the day and night is recommended as they near their due date, it is often a game of minutes versus hours.

Horses have evolved from foaling in the wild and needing to deliver a foal and stand in quick succession to protect themselves and their newborn. By nature, stage 2 of equine labor (water breaks and foal is delivered) happens rapidly and can be explosive. That explosive nature also means that when things go wrong, they go wrong quickly.

“I’d say 80 to 85% of deliveries go routinely, but those 10 to 15% that don’t are why it’s so important for someone knowledgeable to be present.” said Dr. Bob Schwartz, a veterinarian with Midland Acres in Bloomingburg, Ohio. Schwartz and his team foal out more than 200 mares a year. “An experienced attendant will know issues they can deal with themselves, when they need to call a vet and when it’s bad enough that a mare needs to go immediately to the clinic.”

While there are numerous brands and makers of foal alarms on the market today, they can generally be organized into two main categories: externally worn sensors and perineal monitoring systems.

Systems with Externally Worn Sensors

There are several devices on the market that utilize sensors affixed to the head or body of a mare to react to classic presentations in a mare that typically signal birth.

EquiFone/EquiPage, Birth Alarm and Breeders Alert systems, for example, utilize a device affixed to a mare’s halter or to a monitor connected to a girth strap that senses when the mare is in the prone position (i.e. lying flat out on her side–the typical position for labor). The device transmits a signal to either a phone or a pager to alert the person(s) on call that the mare is in foaling position.

Michele Graves of Hickory Hill Farm Thoroughbreds in Fort Edward, New York near Saratoga Springs uses the EquiPage system for her farm, which foals out 25 to 35 mares each year.

“With the EquiPage [system], we know the mare is going into labor before the water breaks [due to being alerted to her movements]. We also use it on the mares in the weeks after they give birth because so much can go wrong then as well,” said Graves. “We use it for other scenarios too, such as horses that have just shipped long distances or those that showed signs of colic during the day because they offer the same presentations when they are colicking that a mare would–the looking at their belly, getting up and down, yawning. You do get some false alarms, but those are worth it to know when a horse is in distress.”

Nightwatch takes this one step further, monitoring a horse’s vital signs and behaviors via sensors embedded in the padded leather crown piece of the halter. Real-time data can be accessed via a Smartphone, tablet or computer and an alert is sent when the system signals a horse in distress due to foaling, colic or being cast.

Perineal Monitoring Systems

Another group of foaling alert systems involve affixing the sensor to the mare’s perineal area or within the vagina.

One popular model is Foalert, in which a transmitter containing a magnet is sutured into the vulva lips one to two weeks prior to a mare’s due date. When the vulva lips are opened due to the foal’s front hooves protruding as delivery begins, the magnet dislodges from the transmitter, activating a signal to alert foaling attendants, either via telephone/pager or by sounding an alarm within close proximity to the transmitter.

“I’ve used the Foalert for years, both on my own mares and on client mares, and I find them very reliable. You don’t get the false alarms you can get with some other system that attach to the halter or girth area when a mare lays down or turns to itch,” said Dr. Joan Tennant, DVM, an equine practitioner based in Ocala, Florida. “I find the alarm goes off when the amniotic fluid bubble is expelled, so you get the alert even in the case of a dystocia that prevents the foal from protruding.”

The Birth Alert system uses a tampon-like sponge that is inserted into the mare’s vagina in the weeks leading up to her due date. When the mare’s water breaks, the device is expelled and the change in temperature activates the device to send a signal to the foaling attendant that the mare is in labor.

The only disadvantage, according to Schwartz, is the possibility of the sponge and sensor being dispelled unintentionally and offering a false-positive.

“I think these systems have a lot of merit for those who don’t have full time attendants through the night,” said Schwartz. “There is less chance of false alarms with these types of systems, but if the foal is breech or otherwise malpositioned, you may not get an alarm.”

For these and similarly invasive systems, a sterile application is key. It is recommended that a veterinarian apply/insert the device to prevent infection or irritation.

Video Monitoring

Closed-circuit video feeds can also play an important role in monitoring mares as they near their due date, especially when used on conjunction with foaling alert systems.

“We’ve used NightWatch for the last six years or so and we also have cameras on all of the mares. The key for us is the audio that goes along with it,” said Braxton Lynch of Royal Oak Farm in Paris, Kentucky. “In my opinion, you can’t beat eyes and ears on a mare prior to foaling.”

There are also smartphone apps available, such as Foal App, which allow users to monitor your mare via video and movement and will alert those whose phones are connected to the app if the mare lays down for a prolonged period.

While technology has afforded the luxury of many types of birth alarms, no device is 100% effective. All birth alarms should be used in conjunction with good horsemanship and monitoring practices, including regularly checking each mare every 30 to 60 minutes when foaling is imminent.

“What works for a large farm probably wouldn’t work well for a small one and vice versa. If a farm with a large number of mares had monitors on each, they’d be getting false positives constantly, but they can afford to have staff on-hand around the clock,” said Graves. “For a smaller operation that can’t afford night staff, foaling alarms are a good solution.”

Added Schwartz, “You can’t watch them 24 hours a day–you have to sleep too–so for smaller operations, foaling alerts can be an important tool to help keep mares and newborn foals out of trouble.”

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Broodmare Nutrition During Late Gestation

Broodmare Nutrition During Late Gestation

With a rapidly growing unborn foal, the transition time from mid- to late-gestation can pose nutritional challenges for pregnant mares.

 

Shoreview, Minn. [February 24, 2017] – Up to 60 percent of an unborn foal’s growth happens during the last three months of pregnancy. As such, late gestation can pose nutritional challenges for pregnant mares.

Comparatively, unborn foals grow very slowly (approximately 0.2 pounds per day) during the first seven to eight months of gestation, causing very little nutritional stress on the mare.

“Dry mares in early gestation can be fed like a mature, idle horse,” says Karen Davison, Ph.D., Director and Nutritionist for Equine Technical Solutions at Purina Animal Nutrition. “Good quality pasture or hay along with a ration balancer or vitamin/mineral supplement may be all that is necessary to meet the mare’s nutritional requirements.”
However, during the last 90 days of pregnancy, the fetus gains approximately 1 pound per day and has a significant impact on the mare’s nutritional requirements for protein, vitamins and minerals.

Additionally, the increased size of the fetus takes up more room in the mare’s body cavity, which may result in the mare eating less hay or forage. This reduction in forage intake, coupled with increased nutritional demands of the pregnancy, requires mares to be supplemented with a nutritionally-balanced feed ration to meet total nutrient requirements.

“Even in situations where forage alone is maintaining mares in acceptable body condition, it is important they receive quality concentrate supplementation,” advises Davison. “While good quality forage may be able to provide sufficient calories to maintain body condition of the mare, other nutrients such as protein, vitamins and minerals, will be deficient.”

Proteins

Research has shown foal birth weight can be negatively affected when mares are not fed adequate protein during late gestation, even when mares are maintained in fleshy condition.

“It is not uncommon to see fat mares have small, weak foals when the mares’ diets are adequate in calories but low in quality protein sources,” says Davison. “Even when mares are fed high-protein forage, such as alfalfa, the diet can still be deficient in important amino acids.”

Davison suggests supplementing mares in late gestation with a feed ration containing quality protein sources to help meet amino acid requirements for optimal foal development.
Minerals

During the tenth month of gestation, the greatest amount of mineral retention occurs in the unborn foal. Adequate trace mineral supplementation for the mare is critical for normal fetal development and provides sufficient minerals for the developing foal to store and utilize immediately after birth.

“In the first weeks of life, foals will not eat sufficient amounts of fortified feeds and may not have adequate absorption of dietary trace mineral sources at this early stage of development,” says Davison. “Proper mineral nutrition of the mare in late gestation helps ensure the foal receives an adequate supply of these important nutrients to use during very early growth stages.”
Thin mares

It is important to properly support good body condition through late gestation to ensure the mare is in good shape at foaling.

“When mares are thin with ribs showing during late gestation, it’s an indication the mare isn’t meeting her own calorie requirements for maintenance. As such, it’s likely the growing foal inside isn’t receiving adequate calorie nutrition for proper development,” says Davison. “The day the mare foals, her calorie requirements increase dramatically. If the mare is thin when she foals, her milk production and the early development of the foal could be negatively affected.”

In these cases, Davison advises feeding a calorically- and nutrient-dense feedto supply the needed energy and weight gain without feeding excessive amounts of grain.

 

Fat mares
If a mare is significantly overweight during late gestation, where ribs cannot be seen and are difficult to feel, Davison says it is important to provide adequate protein, vitamins and minerals to support optimal fetal development without adding unnecessary calories.

For overweight mares, Davison suggests a concentrated protein, vitamin and mineral supplement designed to be fed at 1 to 2 pounds per day. This type of supplement or ration balancer will meet the nutrient needs of the unborn foal without causing weight gain in the mare. It may be necessary to restrict hay intake to 1.5 percent of the mare’s body weight if she is significantly overweight.
Proper nutritional management of the broodmare during late gestation will give her foal the best start in life. With the time and money invested in getting a foal on the ground, it’s important not to skimp on mare nutrition during this critical time.

 

For more information on broodmare and foal nutrition, visitwww.purinamills.com/horse-feed.

 

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